As an example of a recent study showing no effect of high fiber content on satiety or energy intake, Willis and colleagues reported no dose-response difference in satiety or food intake among subjects served 0, 4, 8, or 12 g of mixed-fiber breakfast muffins. Again, why is the relationship between high fiber content, satiety, and energy balance so unclear?
Howarth and colleagues conducted a literature review of fiber, satiety, and energy intake, categorizing studies by time shorter or longer than two days and type of manipulation mixed fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber and found about a consistent 10 percent reduction in energy intake.
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So neither the length of the study nor the type of fiber made a difference. Moreover, Mattes explained, when the studies are categorized by fixed intake i. So regardless of whether individuals were on a fixed- or an ad libitum fiber intake diet, they lost the same amount of weight 2 g per day for every 1 g of added fiber average fiber consumption in the fixed load studies was 10 g per day, compared to 12 g per day in the ad libitum studies. Because appetite would be free to exert its effect on intake in the ad libitum trials, but not in the fixed-intake trials, Mattes interpreted this to mean that there is no benefit in terms of weight loss due to the greater satiety value of increased fiber consumption.
People would have to consume significantly more fiber than is feasible in order to see any dramatic difference in weight loss. Again, this does not argue against increased fiber consumption for optimal health, but expectations about the effects on body weight should be realistic according to Mattes. Like high protein and fiber, glycemic index does not make for a good predictor of satiety either. Jenkins and colleagues showed that glucose levels quickly peaked but then dropped in individuals served glasses of water with 50 g of glucose per glass.
Yet when the same glycemic index load was served to people over the course of 3.
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So the amount of time that consumers spend eating a product influenced response. In another study Alfenas and Mattes, , when individuals were served and allowed to eat ad libitum for eight days either all low-glycemic-index or high-glycemic-index foods, no differences were observed in either glycemic or insulinemic response.
Nor were any differences in hunger reported. So again, Mattes cautioned that glycemic index is not a useful predictor of energy intake. The role of food form in determining energy intake via its impact on satiety is a very controversial topic, with strong views on both sides. Mourao and colleagues compared identical foods served in either beverage or solid form, with the predominant form of macronutrient being either a carbohydrate watermelon , a fat coconut , or a protein dairy.
For all foods, the researchers reported significantly greater energy intake when the foods were consumed as beverages. Thus, Mourao and colleagues concluded that liquid diets pose a greater risk for positive energy balance e. In one of the largest randomized controlled trials on food form and energy intake conducted to date, Houchins and colleagues provided individuals with five servings of fruits and vegetables in either beverage or solid form for eight weeks and reported that although all individuals gained weight over the course of the study i.
Mattes explained that compared to solid foods, beverages have different cognitive effects i. In addition to identifying eating behaviors that serve as good targets for innovative food technology-based obesity prevention and reduction interventions, it is equally important to consider how consumers make decisions about the products that have been altered with those technologies. As speaker David Just, associate professor in applied economics and management and director of graduate studies at Cornell University emphasized, an innovative food technology can be leveraged for obesity prevention and reduction efforts only if 1 a producer actually sells a product that has been improved with the technology, which means that the cost of production needs to be lower than that for comparable products or there has to be some additional value to justify the price premium; 2 consumers actually purchase the product, which means that the product needs to be reasonably priced and similar to or better tasting than comparable products and that consumers need to have a positive perception of the product; and 3 the improvement made possible by the technology is not immiserizing i.
Deciding what food to purchase or eat is not an individual-level decision. It is part of a game between the manufacturer and the consumer, wherein consumers are not fully aware of their behavior e. When new foods are introduced to the marketplace, marketers make the decision about whether to differentiate the new product from other products already on the market. Consumers simply respond to the new product landscape.
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Consumers do not always react to prices and nutritional or other information about new products in rational ways; rather than weighing the various consequences of their actions and giving appropriate weight to vague information, most people fall back on habits and heuristic decision making. Just explained that when marketers differentiate between an improved product and the original product that it is replacing by drawing attention to the fact that the new product has certain health benefits, unpredictable behaviors can offset the intended health benefit of the new product.
Health-conscious consumers are likely to overemphasize the health benefit of the new product and be willing to pay more than the innovation is really worth. It is also very likely that consumers that purchase the product would exhibit compensatory behavior, depending on the health claim. Narrow health claims e. Unlike health-conscious consumers, consumers who associate health with bad taste or otherwise do not recognize the true health benefits of a new product would be much less willing to pay for the improved product and probably would continue to purchase the lower-priced product.
Just remarked that many consumers believe that when changes are made to a food—for example, when sugar is reduced or fat removed—the food will not taste as good as the original product. Even when told otherwise, people expect the food to taste different. Consumers that decide not to purchase the new product would not receive any of the advertised health benefits at all.
In summary, with differentiation, neither type of consumer would necessarily derive any benefit from the new product. All consumers, health conscious or not, would choose the lower-priced product, and the new product would end up disappearing from the market. Again, neither type of consumer would derive any benefit from the new product. So, differentiating between new food products that have been improved through technology leads to anomalous consumer behavior, with people responding irrationally and with health measures often backfiring.
On the other hand, not differentiating between products can lead to a situation in which consumers are not aware of the benefits while producers are not able to capture the profits from those benefits. The only exception, Just explained, would be in the event that the cost of production of the new product was low enough to offer only one product, that is, the new product. In that case, all consumers would purchase the product and benefit accordingly.
Given that neither approach leads to optimal consumption, are there other options? Because more people are likely to benefit from non-differentiation i. Without profit incentive, what other incentives are there? How can firms be rewarded for innovation? Are there ways to introduce differentiated products without creating these anomalous behavioral responses? Just did not provide answers to these questions.
When asked during the question-and-answer period how convenience impacts consumer behavior, Just replied that even a small change in convenience has a disproportionately large impact on consumer preference. As an extreme example, merely having the lid shut on an ice cream cooler in a store makes a big difference in how much ice cream people purchase.
As another example, studies with school children have demonstrated that even a small, 6-inch difference in where milk versus chocolate milk is placed results in 20—30 percent of the children changing their minds about which type of milk to buy. Workshop participants described several different types of technologies that have been developed and commercialized for the purpose of providing consumers with foods that can be used for weight loss or maintenance.
These include reduced energy dense foods with lower fat or sugar content see previous section for a summary of the workshop dialogue on the relationship between energy density, energy intake, and obesity ; foods that are packaged to make it easy for consumers to control portion size again, see previous section for a summary of the workshop dialogue on the relationship between portion size, energy intake, and obesity ; foods that increase fruit and vegetable intake Tara McHugh, ARS research leader of the Processed Foods Research Unit, mentioned that low fruit and vegetable intake is a key risk factor for several chronic diseases ; and foods with increased micronutrient density as McHugh mentioned, biochemist Bruce Ames has hypothesized that insufficient micronutrient intake may drive overeating.
This section summarizes the presentations and discussions that revolved around each of these various categories of technology. Although removing or reducing fat content of food products is technologically challenging, it is possible. The challenge is not the actual removal of the fat, rather it is maintaining taste. Food manufacturers and scientists have leveraged several different technologies for removing fat without sacrificing taste. This subsection summarizes their presentations.
It was a lengthy and difficult challenge, one that required new mixing, cooking, and frying technologies. As Rao explained, blending and cooking the four grains that comprise SunChips—whole wheat, whole milled corn, whole oat flour, and rice flour—required a new manufacturing process, which in turn required significant investment and represented substantial risk. Frito-Lay had to invent a new process for making and cooking the multiple-grain dough in such a way that the end product was homogeneous with respect to both composition of ingredients and dough properties e.
This required designing a new type of extruder technology that could mix four different grains, with different properties, and cook them all to the same degree by integrating computational fluid dynamics modeling into the extrusion process. This ensured that the flow of the food product through the extruder was exactly the same across its entire width so the extruded product had uniform quality in terms of texture, density, etc. Additionally, company scientists had to figure out how to control the fryer to ensure that the end product had, at a minimum, 25 percent less fat than regular potato chips, which required developing a novel type of dynamics matrix control technology—a system for measuring various output variables e.
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The company ended up exceeding its goal of 25 percent less fat: SunChips contain 30 percent less fat than regular potato chips. Rao remarked that, again, development of the technologies required overcoming significant technological challenges, this time related to heat transfer. He explained that producing a baked potato chip that tastes good not like cardboard requires more than just slicing the potatoes and popping them in an oven. In the oven, where heat transfer is much slower, the starch inside the cells in the middle of the slices does not expand in the same way—in fact, it partially gelatinizes.
Along with some other changes to the manufacturing process, Frito-Lay had to design an extremely high heat transfer rate oven in order to create a crispy-textured chip. Outside of the food industry, USDA scientists have been involved in developing a range of innovative grain-based technologies for fat reduction, including several types of soluble and insoluble fiber fat replacers and a reduced-fat-uptake rice batter. As Champagne explained, all four products are tasteless white powders, which makes them easy to incorporate into food products; additionally, all are heat stable and therefore suitable for a wide range of cooked or baked foods.
The process for the first-generation fiber-based fat replacer, OATrim, involved alpha-amylase hydrolyzing the starch in oat, barley flour, or bran into a combination of amylodextrins and beta-glucan.
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The amylodextrins are the actual fat replacers; they create a smooth mouthfeel. The beta-glucan provides beneficial physiological effects, namely a reduction of blood cholesterol. As a dry powder, OATrim contains 4. When OATrim is used as a fat replacer in ice cream, calories of a 4-ounce serving are reduced from to , fat is reduced from 22 g to less than 1 g, and cholesterol is reduced from 85 mg to 4 mg. Studies i. Manufacture of the second-generation product, Nutrim, relies on jet-cooking, instead of alpha-amylase, to produce the same two end products, that is, amylodextrins the actual fat replacer and beta-glucan.
Nutrim has some unique properties that give it a creamy texture and make it a good replacer for dairy and coconut cream. It is used in soups, spreads, and salad dressings and is also sold as a nutraceutical. The manufacturing process for C-Trim, the most recent soluble fat replacer, relies on a specific sequence of aqueous extraction and jet-cooking steps to produce the same end products, the amylodextrins and beta-glucan, as well as a high proportion of proteins and some bioactive phenolics.
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C-Trim has some unique properties that give it a very high viscosity and make it a good fat replacer in yogurt, smoothies, baked goods, and chocolates replacing as much as 25 percent of cocoa butter. It is also sold as a nutraceutical.
A 4 percent addition of C-Trim to wheat batter can lead to a low-oil-uptake batter a 40 percent reduction in oil uptake compared to traditional wheat batter. Insoluble fiber fat replacers are manufactured via a multistage jet-cooking process that chews up the insoluble fiber in the bran or hulls of various grains oats, corn, rice, wheat, soy and produces a cellular debris that can have any of a range of textures, from a particle-like structure to a creaminess to a gel.
If a 75 kg individual were to consume Z-Trim, a zero-calorie insoluble fiber fat replacer, at the daily recommended amount of fiber and as a one-to-one replacement for fat, he or she would consume fewer calories per day. Champagne suggested that, like C-Trim, insoluble fiber fat replacers not only reduce fat content, but may also increase satiety by virtue of their high viscosity, in this case absorbing 24 times their weight in water.
However, insoluble fiber fat replacers are not as effective as soluble fiber fat replacers in improving glucose tolerance. Reducing fat content through use of a novel low-oil-uptake rice batter represents a very different approach but one with multiple applications, like the TRIM technologies. As Champagne explained, not only does the small starch granule size of rice 3—5 microns simulate a fat mouthfeel effect, but also its white color and bland taste, combined with the fact that it is hypoallergenic and gluten-free, make it a naturally good fat replacer.
Initially, using a traditional wheat flour recipe, USDA chemists developed a rice batter that, because of its gluten-free composition, absorbed only 50 percent of the oil that traditional wheat flour batter absorbs. However the initial rice batter, while less absorbent, was also brittle and hard to chew because of its low viscosity. In fact, the viscosity of the improved rice batter was even greater than that of wheat batter. Patented in , the rice batter technology languished for a few years, until a class at Howard County Community College, Columbia, Maryland, adopted the technology in as part of a class project to determine the feasibility of commercialization.