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Within this context, I argue in the text that such histories are often deleted from nationalist master narratives that induce selective national amnesia because these events fit awkwardly into neatly woven patterns. Hence, in Pakistani historiography, in which the major preoccupation remains the narrative surrounding the creation of Pakistan, many aspects of national life are given scant attention. One major arena of national amnesia that my project addresses is the absence of any serious work on the nascent Communist Party of Pakistan s CPP relationship with the populace and the state.

In my research I critically engage with the history of Pakistan s early years, paying special attention to the CPP during its brief period of legal existence after Pakistan gained its independence. In pursuing this task the book concentrates on documenting the history of the working class movement while also focusing on cultural processes to offer a perspective beyond the official retelling of Pakistan s history, which periodically omits how the new country struggled to find the ideological and cultural basis for its creation and existence.

My colleagues were generous and always forthcoming with ideas and suggestions about my work. Julie Livingston not only has become a dear friend as others have , but also read my chapters in draft form and commented on the book prospectus that I was preparing for the press, for which I remain indebted to her. For my tuesday presentation, Behrooz introduced me with a sense of comradeship, intellectual commitment and a arbeitsberichte I could name all my colleagues who in many ways either influenced my work, made me think in new and innovative ways, opened up my mind to fresh ideas or heard me out when I needed to share something half-baked.

I cannot thank each and every one enough. As I progressed in my writing I also felt confident in starting to contemplate my future research plans. Luca Giuliani, the Rector, kindly allowed me to host the Pakistani architect and urban planner, Arif Hasan, in March Arif Hasan and I have been discussing the prospects of working together on a cultural history of Karachi, the city where both of us grew up. What was amazing and important was that Sonja Grund and her colleagues in the library made it possible for me to have access to archival material on the subject that would have otherwise required me to travel in one case to Greece and in another to the united Kingdom.

How things are made available to the Fellows speaks of the dedication, hard work and ingenuity of the staff members. Kirsten Graupner s perseverance in getting me papers from the Greek architect Doxiadis office library in Athens was something unimaginable. Doxiadis was the planner for the new parts of Karachi during the early s, and his documents are crucial to understanding the development of the city in that period. I could not have had access to them unless Kirsten had arranged for them to be shipped to Berlin.

I am sure each and every Fellow who has been to the Institute has her own story regarding the library and the wonders that it can accomplish. In addition to the normal workings of the Wissenschaftskolleg, its support of the e urope in the Middle east Middle east in europe eume program is important to mention. Of course elias Khoury s presence as a Fellow and the organizing of public forums where he spoke enhanced the level of public debate on the Middle east and the question of Arab-Israeli politics to a level that showed farsightedness and intellectual courage on the part of Wiko s leadership for which they deserve to be commended.

One can only thank the leadership and staff of the Wissenschaftskolleg for making the year such a special one. Finally, the day-to-day life at Wiko had its own predictable rhythms and pleasures. Walking into the building in the morning and saying hello to vera Schulze-Seeger, who was always smiling and willing to help, going down to the dining hall for that best of all breakfasts or simply a coffee where again one greeted the ever-gracious Katarzyna Speder, sometimes taking a detour and going up the stairs to say hi to friends like Katharina Biegger who was my first contact to Wiko, and I am still indebted to her for bringing me to Berlin , Francisco Martinez-Casas or Katharina Wiedemann.

As I mentioned above, the friendships that we created will last our lifetime. I write this from Austin and in the past few weeks since we have returned many of us have written and spoken to each other about the loss of the everyday companionship, the community that we had created and how we miss each other. But the memories do remain. What I recall most are the moments of shared laughter, of happiness. For a year we were happy in Berlin, and the Wissenschafts kolleg made it possible. Researches the evolution and ecology of infectious diseases, especially sexually transmitted diseases in natural populations.

Currently studying the impact of anther-smut disease on alpine plant distribution, the co-evolution of host-pathogen genetic systems, and the history of infectious disease. Address: Department of Biology, university of virginia, Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, va , usa. My stay at Wiko was very wonderful and very successful.


  • Archiv für die 'Kultur' Kategorie.
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  • Sonata No. 21 in B-flat Major, Op. Posth.

I had the time to explore new areas intellectually, finish manuscripts, meet new friends, and establish an academic family. It was quite unlike anything I had known in over forty years in academia; in many ways I felt I had finally arrived at a university where faculty were important and where there were real interactions across disciplines.

My previous attempts on this topic, carried out in the rush of various semesters, had failed. Being a blend of ecology and evolutionary biology, it is an issue that has fascinated me intellectually for several years. A bonus is that our study system is in the Italian Alps but as I write, I d much rather be in Berlin.

A year ago I would never have imagined that I would come to prefer Berlin to Italy! One manuscript deals with the issue of why most hosts are seemingly resistant to most pathogens. Much of the reason, we concluded, is that the pathogen lifestyle of necessity entails a high degree of specialization, and so evolution on one host withdraws the ability to infect other hosts. We gathered evidence for this from the literature, outlined how these ideas could be tested, and explored the implications for the study of infectious disease in humans using animal models.

If there were no evolution we would already have controlled most of the world s main infectious diseases. We have had the drugs and vaccines to eliminate most pathogens or their vectors , but they have been repeatedly made ineffective by the evolutionary responses of the pathogens. Yet there has not been serious acceptance and investigation of evolutionary processes in the field of biomedical research.

Our discussions raised both biological and policy issues, and our focus group benefited greatly from the participation of other people at Wiko, especially Andrew Farlow, Britt Koskella, Iruka Okeke, and Ben Sadd. I also got a lot of help in unexpected ways, especially on how to approach a subject that was too big to handle. Robert Boyer, an economist, responded to my frustration by suggesting I do something crazy; so I drew cartoons, drawing inspiration from his seminar.

The “Mithras Liturgy”

Anne van Aaken, a scholar of international law, introduced me to the Precautionary Principle, and this stimulated me to indeed wonder if it might not be feasible to apply this principle to the loss of antibiotic usefulness due to the irreversibility of evolution. Most policy and arbeitsberichte My own, largely unrelated readings on the germ theory in the 19th century also resonated with these issues of evolution; our own wishy-washy statements about overuse or misuse of antibiotics as the cause of antibiotic resistance had great similarities with victorian ideas about bad hygiene causing disease.

In both cases the words that are used create an aura of authority and generality, when what is needed is commitment to a serious research program. Also, having time to reflect on the history of evolutionary biology made me realize that the fault for a failure to accept the importance of evolution if blame could be assigned also lay with the lack of institutional formalization of evolutionary biology.

Our field has no certificate of professional competency, so it is no wonder that at the fringes there is much incompetency, casual speculation, and general helplessness. My book project made stuttering progress. But the chapters, scope, and overall messages crystallized into something that I am very happy with and hope will be enter taining, interesting, and coherent for the reader.

I gained confidence in how to approach writing through both trial and error, as well as through conversations with my colleagues at Wiko. Inevitably perhaps, I still had to deal with the scientific papers that were in the pipeline. However, because all I wanted to do was Wiko work, I found it thoroughly frustrating and distracting.

Religious Speciation

But perhaps I should not complain. I had three manuscripts accepted for publication and submitted two more. In the process of working on one of them, I had enough time to do some programming, beyond just providing words for the manuscript, and this stimulated me into new ideas and directions in understanding how the genetics of host-pathogen genetic interactions are molded by evolution and how to attack the subject theoretically.

Discussions with others in our focus group and with Laura Rose, a visiting scientist, gave me many new ideas, and I am keen to pursue these new directions over the coming months. I felt I cemented my interest in the visual arts. As Christiane pointed out, at least we finished one book this year. Historians taught me how to cite sources and to feel more relaxed with ibids. Bahru Zewde, on discovering that there were still more biologists but fewer historians among next year s Fellows, was dismayed: Without us historians you biologists will become insects.

You need historians to give you your humanity. I thoroughly enjoyed correcting the Arabian poetry for my other neighbor, Beatrice Gruendler, and she reciprocated when I had some German translations.

We even translated an older German poem together, but disappointingly it was rejected by the new yorker. But we hope to publish it in a journal with a lower impact factor. With a visitor, Klaus Reinhardt, I started a project on infectious diseases and their impact on sperm longevity. Klaus also guided me skillfully and patiently through the depressing Berlin Document Center and the university archives in Halle and Heidelberg.

I found out that my initial publication on him in the early s is the only paper of mine that has never been cited in the scientific literature, which makes me more determined than ever to keep going! I also translated one of Ludwig s seminal papers and hope that at least this may be cited at some time in the future. We also found Ludwig s house in Heidelberg, but alas after a lot of searching failed to find his grave in the nearby cemetery!! Next time, maybe. Alas, next year in this all too ephemeral college won t happen even though perhaps other things aren t precluded!

For me there were three very full semesters, separated by the Christmas and easter holidays when I went back to the usa, where I normally live. I was born in Riga, Latvia, and as a child had been in a refugee camp north of Germany. After university, I had turned down a fellowship to study in Germany because I got my first choice for graduate work. So I had always wanted to come back to a German-spea k- ing country.

Alas in Berlin, the German past came to life for me more vividly than I had wanted it to, and it was difficult to reconcile my own enthusiasms for being here with some of the realities of the past. For example, Platform 17, which I was shown only a few months after passing it many times at Grunewald, was a shock, made worse by the snow on the platform memorials; one of them documented that Jews were deported to Riga, a day after my birth there.

I was very upset by discovering through readings in our German class that on reunification of east and West Germany, there was a wholesale take-over of university positions in the east by professors in the West with almost no respect for academic freedom a process euphemistically labeled the abwicklung. It was a case of McCarthyism mixed not with populism, but with elitism; and it maintained the oppressive and hierarchical academic system of West German universities. Were the people who did this now my colleagues here? So it was a complex and somewhat difficult time for me.

My second semester, after Christmas, was less intense emotionally, but wasteful and therefore a bit exhausting. I read a tremendous amount, but did not take enough notes. I chased sources, but took too many false turns. I tried to get objective facts and didn t appreciate enough that at times there was no point. I looked for rational continuity of Chapters, but was palpably failing to entertain the reader. However, it was a joy to get support from my colleagues who emphasized how they too get stuck on writing, how they too have good periods and bleak periods, and that books take years not months.